Nickel is a naturally-occurring metallic element with a silvery-white, shiny appearance. It is the fifth-most common element on earth and occurs extensively in the earth’s crust and core. Nickel, along with iron, is also a common element in meteorites and can even be found in small quantities in plants, animals and seawater.
While the concentration of nickel in the earth's crust is 80 parts per million, the earth's core consists mainly of a nickel-iron alloy
Nickel has outstanding physical and chemical properties, which make it essential in hundreds of thousands of products. Its biggest use is in alloying - particularly with chromium and other metals to produce stainless and heat-resisting steels.
Nickel occurs naturally, principally as oxides, sulphides and silicates. Primary nickel is produced and used as ferro-nickel, nickel oxides and other chemicals, and as more or less pure nickel metal. Over two million tonnes of new or primary nickel are produced and used annually in the world.
There are many different nickel ores requiring a variety of techniques to extract the nickel.
Nickel-containing ores are currently mined in more than 25 countries worldwide.
Click on the map below to find out more about mining and production in some of those countries.
'First use' of nickel is defined as the conversion of nickel products into intermediate products, which form the basis for nickel-containing end-use products. In almost all cases, these first-use products undergo further processing before they are ready for use.
Due to its outstanding physical and mechanical properties, nickel is used in a wide range of end-use sectors.
Socio-economic data on nickel show the importance of industries throughout the nickel value chain, from mining through end use to recycling. The data quantify important metrics, such as employment or value added. They also serve as the basis for modelling the positive and negative impacts of, for example, market developments or regulatory initiatives. In cooperation with Roskill, the Nickel Institute collects and updates socio-economic data for the main nickel producing and using countries.
In Europe, a socio-economic assessment was done for 12 of the most relevant economies where significant nickel production or use occurs. In these countries, the total value added by the nickel industry and its value chains is estimated to be €43 billion. In addition, the output generated by nickel and related industries is around €130 billion, implicating around 750,000 jobs which depend directly or indirectly on nickel (reference year 2017).
Globally, the nickel value chain supports large numbers of jobs, many of which are high skill manufacturing occupations.
Find out more about the socio-economic impact of nickel in the EU, USA and Canada using the interactive map below.
(Source: Roskill Pariser)
Society cares more and more about sustainability and needs to know more about the materials that contribute to a sustainable future. Nickel is one of those materials.
Nickel is an element. It cannot be created nor destroyed. Its attributes - corrosion resistance, high-temperature stability, strength, ductility, toughness, recyclability, as well as catalytic and electromagnetic properties help achieve sustainability. Nickel in its various forms is often unseen, yet it plays hundreds of roles in thousands of products and applications we use every day.
While its role is often hidden, nickel is an enabler of many technologies required for sustainability. Nickel contributes to the achievement of many of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in lots of ways.
Nickel is a natural resource, which cannot be consumed. Like many other metals, nickel is fully recyclable. It can be recycled again and again without loss of quality, contributing to the Circular Economy (CE) model.
As nickel-containing products have value, there is an infrastructure for gathering and processing them. Gathering, sorting, preparing, transporting and using scrap metal generates significant employment and adds economic value.