Welding Stainless and 9% Nickel Steel Cryogenic Vessels (14037)
By Richard E. Avery and David Parsons, reprinted from Welding Journal, November, 1995. It is well known that ferritic steels, including the low-alloy steels, lose toughness and ductility at low temperatures. The ductile-brittle transition temperature, i.e., a temperature below which a metal becomes brittle, is affected by steel-making practices. Alloys with increasing nickel content substantially increase low-temperature toughness. Finally, improved test methods and equipment for measuring toughness can improve yields by alleviating unnecessary rejects.