Nickel Aids Chips' need for Super Clean Water (14003)
By Arthur H. Tuthill, reprinted from Nickel, Vol . 4 (2), 1988. Demands by the semiconductor industry gave new meaning to the term clean water. If water contained lppm total dissolved solids, that was too dirty for washing infinitesimal chips. Needed: zero total dissolved solids. Ion exchange, developed to supply nuclear-grade water, and reverse osmosis technology, used for purifying drinking water, were linked to become a deionization reclamation system. It provides water clean enough to meet what are believed to be the most stringent standards for water purity.