Exposure to readily water soluble nickel salts occurs mainly during the electrolytic refining of nickel (producing industries) and in electroplating (using industries). Depending upon the processes used, exposures are usually to hydrated nickel (II) sulfate or nickel chloride in solution. As with the previously mentioned nickel species, the routes of exposure of toxicological relevance to the workplace are inhalation and dermal exposures. However, unlike other nickel species, soluble nickel occurs in food and water; thus, oral exposures are briefly mentioned below.
Inhalation Exposure: Soluble Nickel
Dermal Exposure: Soluble Nickel
Other Exposures: Soluble Nickel