Occupational exposure to metallic nickel can occur through a variety of sources. Most notable of these sources are metallurgical operations, including stainless steel manufacturing, nickel alloy production, and related powder metallurgy operations. Other sources of potential occupational exposure to metallic nickel include nickel-cadmium battery manufacturing, chemical and catalyst production, plating, and miscellaneous applications such as coin production. In nearly all cases, metallic nickel exposures include concomitant exposures to other nickel compounds (most notably oxidic nickel, but other nickel compounds as well), and can be confounded with exposure to toxic non-nickel materials. Therefore, it is important to summarize those health effects which can most reasonably and reliably be considered relevant to metallic nickel in occupational settings, despite the fact that other nickel and non-nickel compounds may be present.
Inhalation Exposure: Metallic Nickel
Dermal Exposure: Metallic Nickel